He was the most famous grandson of the great conqueror Genghis Khan , expanding his grandfather's empire and ruling the vast territory. He was the first non-Han emperor to conquer all of China. Although Kublai Khan was the grandson of Genghis Khan, very little is known about his childhood. We do know that Kublai was born in to Tolui the youngest son of Genghis and his wife Sorkhotani, a Nestorian Christian princess of the Kereyid Confederacy. Kublai was the couple's fourth son. Sorkhotani's political savvy was legendary; Rashid al-Din of Persia noted that she was "extremely intelligent and able and towered above all the women in the world.
Rise to power
Kublai Khan. Kublai was the forth son of Tule, and grandson of the founder of the Mongol empire, Genghis Khan. Kublai Khan fought along side with his father in many battles starting at the young age of He became a very good horseman and his warrior reputation grew with each passing year. Following the death of his father when he was 17, He began to involve himself in the empire. His brother Mngke later on became the leader of the mongol empire, and Kublai Khan was given control over chinese territories in the eastern part of the empire.
He was the first Mongol to rule over China when he conquered the Song Dynasty of southern China in Kublai also spelled Kubla or Khubilai relegated his Chinese subjects to the lowest class of society and even appointed foreigners, such as Venetian explorer Marco Polo, to important positions over Chinese officials. After failed expeditions against Japan and Java, his Mongol dynasty declined toward the end of his reign, and was completely overthrown by the Chinese after his death. The Mongols were a nomadic clan from the regions around present-day Mongolia. After uniting the individual nomadic tribes on the Mongolian plateau, Genghis Khan went on to conquer large portions of central Asia and China. That same year, the Mongols had captured the northern China capital city of Yen-ching modern-day Beijing , forcing the royal family to flee south. Kublai was reportedly adept in Mongolian traditions, having successfully brought down an antelope by the age of nine. When Kublai was 17 years old, his father died. In , Ogodei granted Kublai a fiefdom of some 10, households in the Hopei Hebei province. Initially, Kublai did not rule the area directly and instead left his Mongol agents in charge, but they imposed such high taxes that many farmers abandoned their homes to settle in areas not under Mongol rule.
Kublai Khan was the Mongol emperor under whom the Mongol Empire reached its greatest extent, becoming at its height one of the largest the world had ever seen. Despite this, he displayed altruism by encouraging the development of science and arts. Kublai was the founder of the Yuan Dynasty and proclaimed himself the Chinese emperor. The young Kublai excelled at traditional Mongol activities and sports from an early age. He was particularly proficient at hunting, having killed an antelope when he was only nine years old.